Diameter Signaling Controller Use Cases

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Diameter Signaling Highlights

Worldwide LTE based 4G network deployments are increasing very aggressively. According to Ovums’s 4Q17 tracker, total number of VoLTE deployments are increased to 118 with in-service status and many more in planning and deployment status. In addition, VoLTE network adaptation is continuously gaining by the worldwide operators and becoming popular network architecture. As LTE/VoLTE deployments rises, Diameter signaling will significantly grow very rapidly. Moreover, some network elements in 3G network also uses Diameter interfaces. In total, several network elements are equipped with Diameter signaling protocol stack such as PCRF, OCS, PGW, SGW, HSS, MME, PCSCF, AS and many more introducing in 5G and Cellular-IoT (CIoT).

Under the circumstances, some CSPs has experienced the Diameter signaling traffic caused congestion problems. Moreover, some network outages have been also seen due to massive signaling messages. Such hazards demand Diameter signaling controller to prevent network congestion, overload protection, roaming interworking, multi-vendor interoperability. The Packet Force One DSC meets all these requirements and provides an advanced, smart routing engine. Our Diameter Router offers wide range of routing rules and policies that can help CSPs to meet operational and business needs.

Use case 1 - Load Balancing and Congestion Control

In a complex Diameter signaling network, it is a headache when adding new nodes comes with cost and scalability concerns. At the same time if traffic is not managed efficiently, it can cause network degradation or breakdown. For instance, during attach procedure, MME needs to communicate with several instances of HSS over S6a interface that demands surety of proper load balancing mechanism to prevent congestion and better utilization of network resources. Packet Force Diameter Router optimizes the signaling flow of network resources with centralized intelligent routing and robust congestion control and traffic prioritization.

Load Balancing

Use case 2 - Roaming Interworking and Topology Hiding

The increased international tour and travelling has created new demand of mobile service charging seamlessly. In legacy network, charging and controlling of international roamers was very difficult for Prepaid voice and data services. In LTE based network, now it became possible for CSPs to charge roaming users in real-time via Diameter signaling over IPX connectivity between V-PLMN and H-PLMN. In roaming infrastructure, DEA usually located at the edge of the operator’s network and maintains single point of entry for roaming traffic. Packet Force Diameter Edge Agent for roaming solution allows CSPs to setup policies that securely exchange Diameter messages across partner networks over IPX. DEA hides the network topology from roaming partners and establishes secure connection.

Roaming Interworking

Use case 3 - Vendor Interoperability (Diameter Mediation)

In multi-vendor network environment, there is a strong possibility of having compatibility issues while exchanging Diameter messages between network elements. In fact, sometimes supported 3GPP release version mismatch of various network elements put CSPs in trouble and they have to pay very high to resolve dependencies. For instance, PGW supports some vendor specific attribute value pairs (AVP) and PCRF supports 3GPP standardize AVPs. In that case vendor specific Diameter AVPs need to map or convert into 3GPP standardize AVPs. There are several other cases where CSP need proper solution to overcome interoperability problems. Packet Force Diameter Mediation Agent (DMA) plays a key role to solve interoperability challenges. DMA is capable to process custom data dictionaries and AVP manipulation very efficiently.

Vendor Interoperability

Deployment Scenarios

Diameter Signaling Controller deployment scenarios in LTE, VOLTE network

  • Routing and load balancing between PGW and PCRF over Gx Diameter interface
  • Routing and load balancing between PGW and OCS over Gy Diameter interface
  • Routing and load balancing between MME and HSS over S6a Diameter interface
  • Routing and load balancing between PCSCF and HSS over Cx Diameter interface
  • Routing between AS and PCRF over Rx Diameter interface
  • Routing between PCRF and OCS over Sy Diameter interface
  • Diameter traffic routing from MNO to MVNO network
  • Domestic VPLMN control plane routing towards HPLMN
  • International VPLMN control plane routing towards HPLMN
  • Vendor specific Diameter message customization
  • 3GPP technical specification version incompatibility solution
  • Interworking between various Diameter applications
  • Diameter message AVPs enrichment
  • Interoperability between Any Diameter Peer to Any Diameter Peer